Electrically Large Circular Loops in the Estimation of an Incident Emitter's Direction-of-Arrival or Polarization

Salman Khan, Kainam Thomas Wong, Yang Song, Wai Yip Tam

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

22 Citations (Scopus)


Electrically small loops have been the focus of the research literature on loop-antenna signal processing, but such electrically small loop-antennas are electromagnetically inefficient. Electrically large loop-antennas will instead be analyzed here in this paper, in the context of estimating an incident source's direction-of-arrival or polarization. Specifically, three large loop-antennas here are collocated and are oriented orthogonally, in order to measure all three Cartesian components of the incident magnetic field simultaneously all at one specific spatial position. This orthogonal triad offers azimuth-elevation bivariate directivity despite the three loops' spatial collocation. For such a triad of electrically large loops, this paper (first in the open literature) formulates the array manifold, develops the corresponding algorithms in closed form to estimate an incident source's azimuth-elevation direction-of-arrival or polarization, and demonstrates these proposed estimators' precision as close to the Cramér-Rao bounds.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3046-3055
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2018


  • Antenna arrays
  • antenna measurements
  • antenna radiation patterns
  • antennas
  • array signal processing
  • arrays
  • direction-of-arrival estimation
  • directive antennas
  • loop antenna arrays
  • loop antennas
  • parameter estimation
  • polarimetry
  • polarization
  • polarization estimation
  • radio direction finding
  • signal processing antennas

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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