Efficient Verifiably Encrypted ECDSA-Like Signatures and Their Applications

Xiao Yang, Mengling Liu, Man Ho Au, Xiapu Luo, Qingqing Ye

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review


Verifiably encrypted signature (VES) allows a signer to encrypt a signature under the public key of a trusted third party (aka adjudicator) in a verifiable manner. Recently, Yang et al. proposed a practical verifiably encrypted signature scheme for ECDSA and initiated the study of escrow protocol for Bitcoin via VES. This paper generalizes and improves the VES scheme of Yang et al., such that it covers a family of signatures with similar structures, including ECDSA, Schnorr and their variants. Our construction is very efficient: comparing with Yang et al. 's construction, the size of the resulting VES (for ECDSA) is reduced by more than 25 times. The only caveat is that the adjudicator is required to store a look-up table of size around 270MB. Our scheme naturally gives rise to escrow protocols for mainstream cryptocurrencies that employ ECDSA-like signatures to authorise transaction, including Bitcoin, Ethereum, Cardano, Chainlink, etc.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1573-1582
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2022


  • cryptocurrency
  • escrow protocol
  • Verifiably encrypted signature

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
  • Computer Networks and Communications

Cite this