Efficacy of biophysical energies on healing of diabetic skin wounds in cell studies and animal experimental models: A systematic review

Rachel Lai Chu Kwan, Song Lu, Harry Ming Chun Choi, Luther C. Kloth, Gladys Lai Ying Cheing (Corresponding Author)

Research output: Journal article publicationReview articleAcademic researchpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


We have systematically assessed published cell studies and animal experimental reports on the efficacy of selected biophysical energies (BPEs) in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. These BPEs include electrical stimulation (ES), pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF), extracorporeal shockwave (ECSW), photo energies and ultrasound (US). Databases searched included CINAHL, MEDLINE and PubMed from 1966 to 2018. Studies reviewed include animal and cell studies on treatment with BPEs compared with sham, control or other BPEs. Information regarding the objective measures of tissue healing and data was extracted. Eighty-two studies were eventually selected for the critical appraisal: five on PEMF, four each on ES and ECSW, sixty-six for photo energies, and three about US. Based on the percentage of original wound size affected by the BPEs, both PEMF and low-level laser therapy (LLL) demonstrated a significant clinical benefit compared to the control or sham treatment, whereas the effect of US did not reveal a significance. Our results indicate potential benefits of selected BPEs in diabetic wound management. However, due to the heterogeneity of the current clinical trials, comprehensive studies using well-designed trials are warranted to confirm the results.

Original languageEnglish
Article number368
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2 Jan 2019


  • Biophysical energies
  • Cell
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Experimental models
  • Skin wounds
  • Systematic review

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry

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