Effects of ultrasound on electrochemical oxidation mechanisms of p-substituted phenols at BDD and PbO2 anodes

Xiuping Zhu, Jinren Ni, Hongna Li, Yi Jiang, Xuan Xing, Alistair G.L. Borthwick

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

46 Citations (Scopus)


The effects of low-frequency (40 kHz) ultrasound are investigated with regard to the effectiveness and mechanisms of electrochemical oxidation of p-substituted phenols (p-nitrophenol, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, phenol, p-cresol, and p-methoxyphenol) at BDD (boron-doped diamond) and PbO2 anodes. Although ultrasound improved the disappearance rates of p-substituted phenols at both the BDD and PbO2 anodes, the degree of enhancement varied according to the type of p-substituted phenol and type of anode under consideration. At the BDD anode, the%Increase values were in the range 73-83% for p-substituted phenol disappearance and in the range 60-70% for COD removal. However, at the PbO2 anode, the corresponding%Increase values were in the range 50-70% for disappearance of p-substituted phenols and only 5-25% for COD removal, much lower values than obtained at the BDD anode. Further investigations on the influence of ultrasound on the electrochemical oxidation mechanisms at BDD and PbO2 anodes revealed that the different increase extent were due to the specialized electrochemical oxidation mechanisms at these two anodes. The hydroxyl radicals were mainly free at the BDD electrodes with a larger reaction zone, but adsorbed at the PbO2 electrodes with a smaller reaction zone. Therefore, the enhancement due to ultrasound was greater at the BDD anode than at the PbO2 anode.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5569-5575
Number of pages7
JournalElectrochimica Acta
Issue number20
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2010
Externally publishedYes


  • Boron-doped diamond electrode
  • Electrochemical oxidation
  • P-Substituted phenols
  • PbO electrode
  • Ultrasound

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemical Engineering
  • Electrochemistry


Dive into the research topics of 'Effects of ultrasound on electrochemical oxidation mechanisms of p-substituted phenols at BDD and PbO2 anodes'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this