Effects of ion beam bombardment on electrochromic tungsten oxide films studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Rutherford back-scattering

H. Y. Wong, Chung Wo Ong, R. W.M. Kwok, K. W. Wong, S. P. Wong, W. Y. Cheung

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

69 Citations (Scopus)


The effect of ion bombardment on thermally evaporated and magnetron sputtered tungsten oxide films were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Results show that irrespective of the porosity and crystallinity of the film samples formed with different techniques and conditions, ion bombardment induced preferential sputtering of oxygen, resulting in a decrease of oxygen/tungsten (O/W) ratio with increasing sputtering time. Samples experienced electrochromic switching cycles also show the same effect, except that a higher O/W ratio is detected because the tungsten oxide film reacts with the LiClO4-propylene carbonate electrolyte. Angle-resolved XPS experiments further confirm preferential sputtering of oxygen, suggesting that ion beam sputtering used in XPS for pre-cleaning and depth profile analysis of tungsten oxide must be used with caution. Rutherford back-scattering gives more reliable composition data of tungsten oxide, since it does not involve any sputtering process.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)131-139
Number of pages9
JournalThin Solid Films
Issue number1-2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2000

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Surfaces and Interfaces
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Materials Chemistry

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