Effects of element ratio on robustness of CZTS films: Variations in sulfurization temperature

Jiangtao Xu, Jing Yang, Shouxiang Jiang (Corresponding Author), Songmin Shang (Corresponding Author)

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


In this study, Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films are fabricated through radio frequency magnetron sputtering followed with sulfurization process under different annealing temperatures. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-rays, Raman spectroscopy, UV–vis–NIR spectroscopy, and Hall effect measurement system are used to characterize the fabricated CZTS films. Elemental ratio variations during the sulfurization process under different temperatures are examined from the perspective of the following decomposition process: Cu2ZnSnS4 (s) ⇋ Cu2S (s) + ZnS (s) + SnS (s) +1/2 S2 (s). Furthermore, the lattice parameters, grain size, full-width at half-maximum (FWHM), dislocation density, and micro-stress are calculated and analyzed in light of the elemental ratio variations. Meanwhile, the Raman spectra and a joint analysis with the energy band gaps validate the presence of secondary phases including orthorhombic Cu3SnS4, cubic Cu2SnS3 and tetragonal Cu2SnS3. The results indicate that the energy band gap can be adjusted by controlling the amount of S, loss of Sn through annealing temperature, and temperature of 500 °C is a appropriate sulfurization temperature for preventing the decomposition of CZTS during the annealing process. This study is an important reference for experimental works that seek to improve quality of CZTS thin films in solar cells with high conversion efficiency.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)25927-25934
Number of pages8
JournalCeramics International
Issue number16
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2020


  • CZTS
  • Element ratio
  • Secondary phases
  • Sulfurization temperature

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Materials Chemistry


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