Effects of athletic T-shirt designs on natural ventilation

Chupo Ho, Jintu Fan, Edward Newton, Raymond Au

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: Maintaining air circulation between the wearer and garment layer is crucial for activating heat and moisture transfer from the body. If an air gap is trapped, air circulation may become ineffective and the ventilation of the garment is, thus, hindered. To maintain and extend the air gap, this study aims to propose a design method that involves placing spacer blocks underneath the garment to prevent the fabric from clinging directly to the skin. Design/methodology/approach: To study the application of this design method, a series of T-shirts were produced and tested using a thermal manikin in standing and walking postures. All the T-shirts were made of fabric ostensibly manufactured to have high air permeability. Porous mesh fabric was used to construct the vented panels on the T-shirts. The test was conducted in a chamber with controlled temperature, relative humidity and wind velocity. Total thermal insulation (R t ) and moisture vapour resistance (R et ) were measured. Findings: The test results showed that extension of the air gap between wearer and fabric provided higher ventilation to the wearer if the vented panels were also present on the T-shirts. Different placements of the vented panels on the T-shirts also affected the heat and moisture transfer from the thermal manikin. Research limitations/implications: Due to limited resources, the evaluation of total thermal insulation and moisture vapour resistance was based on the testing result from a thermal manikin instead of any subjective wearer trial. Practical implications: This research can contribute to the clothing designer who is developing function wear for a better ventilation. Social implications: This research can contribute to the clothing designer who is developing function wear for a better ventilation. Originality/value: This study aimed to further develop a new design concept in T-shirt design by improving the construction of the spacer blocks. Fabric with higher air and water vapour permeability was used to determine to what extent this design method is applicable to higher performance on heat and moisture transfer.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)112-123
Number of pages12
JournalResearch Journal of Textile and Apparel
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 6 Jun 2016


  • Design
  • Heat and moisture transfer
  • T-shirt
  • Ventilation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science (miscellaneous)
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
  • Business and International Management
  • Management of Technology and Innovation

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