Effectiveness of the tier 1 program of project P.A.T.H.S.: Findings based on the first 2 years of program implementation

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38 Citations (Scopus)


The Tier 1 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programmes) is a curricular-based program that attempts to promote positive youth development in Hong Kong. In the second year of the Full Implementation Phase, 20 experimental schools (N = 2,784 students) and 23 control schools (N = 3,401 students) participated in a randomized group trial. Analyses of covariance and linear mixed models, controlling for differences between the two groups in terms of Wave 1 pretest scores, personal variables, and random effect of schools, showed that participants in the experimental schools had significantly higher positive youth development levels than did participants in the control schools at post-test, based on different indicators derived from the Chinese Positive Youth Development Scale. The students in the experimental schools also displayed a lower level of delinquency, but better school adjustment than did students in the control schools. Differences between experimental and control participants were also found when students who joined the Tier 1 Program and perceived the program to be beneficial were employed as participants of the experimental schools.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)539-547
Number of pages9
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2009


  • Adolescents
  • Objective outcome evaluation
  • P.A.T.H.S
  • Positive youth development
  • Randomized group trial

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Environmental Science(all)

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