Based on the empirical electron theory of solids and molecules, the valence-electron structures (VES) and the surface energy of the Ni‒Cu electrode of Pb(Ti, Zr)O3piezoelectric ceramics were calculated by using the empirical electron surface model. The relationship between VES and the wettability of electrode materials was determined firstly. The results indicate that the increase of wettability results from the reduction of the surface energy when the Cu content of Ni1−xCuxgradually increases. The Pb(Ti, Zr)O3ceramics brazed with metal electrode were fabricated, and the experimental results show that the trend of the wettability is in agreement with the calculation results.
- Piezoelectric ceramic
- valence-electron structure
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Condensed Matter Physics