Effect of seawater as mixing water on the hydration behaviour of tricalcium aluminate

Yamei Cai, Dongxing Xuan, Pengkun Hou, Jie Shi, Chi Sun Poon

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

30 Citations (Scopus)


This study explored the mechanism of the effect of seawater on tricalcium aluminate (C3A) hydration. The results showed that seawater retarded C3A hydration and reduced the reaction degree of C3A. The co-existence or ion pairing of Ca2+ and SO42− onto the surface of C3A poisoning the reactive sites is the main reason for this retardation. Besides, the precipitation of Mg(OH)2 on the surface of C3A would prolong the induction period for another 30 min and then consequently decrease the dissolution rate of C3A hydration. Trace amounts of MgSO40 and Mg2+ present in the alkaline solution had little retardation effect. It was also found that Cl would preferentially react with C3A to form Friedel's salt, rather than forming hydroxy-AFm as that in the C3A-deionized water paste. The direct formation of Friedel's salt resulted in an accumulation of Al3+ in solution, which would also hinder the subsequent dissolution of C3A.

Original languageEnglish
Article number106565
JournalCement and Concrete Research
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2021


  • CA
  • Friedel's salt
  • Hydration
  • Retardation
  • Seawater

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Building and Construction
  • Materials Science(all)


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