Effect of member orientation on static strengths of cold-formed high strength steel tubular X-joints

Madhup Pandey, Ben Young

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


Rotation of brace and/or chord members has a significant effect on the static strengths of tubular joints. Brace-rotated and bird-beak tubular joints are obtained by rotating the brace and/or chord members along their respective longitudinal axes by angles corresponding to their cross-sectional diagonal planes. This paper presents an experimental investigation of 29 cold-formed high strength steel (CFHSS) brace-rotated (BR), square bird-beak (SBB) and diamond bird-beak (DBB) tubular X-joints. The tubular members were made of S960 steel, having a nominal yield strength of 960 MPa. An axial compression load was applied through the braces of brace-rotated and bird-beak tubular X-joints. The welds connecting braces and chords of brace-rotated and bird-beak tubular X-joints were laid using the automatic gas metal arc welding process. The measured values of brace-to-chord width ratio (β) ranged from 0.33 to 0.83, effective brace-to-chord width ratio (β’) ranged from 0.25 to 0.87, brace-to-chord thickness ratio (τ) ranged from 0.67 to 1.28 and chord width-to-chord thickness ratio (2γ) ranged from 25.3 to 39.1. Three failure modes were observed in this study, namely chord face failure by plastification, a combination of this with chord sidewall failure (i.e., combined failure), and chord crown failure by plastification. Nominal strength prediction methods, from prior studies on member-rotated tubular joints as well as from the prEN 1993-1-8 (2021) and CIDECT (2008, 2009), were evaluated against the static strengths obtained from the tests. Reliability analysis was also performed to check the reliability levels of the existing design rules. For the range of tests undertaken, it was found that the current design rules of RHS-to-RHS, CHS-to-RHS and CHS-to-CHS tubular X-joints given in the CIDECT (2008, 2009), when used in conjunction with a material factor of 0.80, were found suitable and reliable for the design of CFHSS BR, SBB and DBB X-joints, respectively. In addition, the effect of change of member-rotation on the joint strengths and load–deformation curves was also assessed by comparing the structural performance of member-rotated tubular X-joints with the those of corresponding identical traditional RHS-to-RHS X-joints (Pandey and Young [1]).

Original languageEnglish
Article number108501
JournalThin-Walled Structures
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2022


  • Bird-beak joints
  • Brace-rotated joints
  • Cold-formed steel
  • High strength steel
  • Tubular members
  • Tubular X-joints

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Building and Construction
  • Mechanical Engineering


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