Effect of foot progression angle adjustment on the knee adduction moment and knee joint contact force in runners with and without knee osteoarthritis

I. C.D. Fong, W. S.C. Li, W. K.J. Tai, T. W.R. Tsang, J. H. Zhang, T. L.W. Chen, H. Baur, P. Eichelberger, Tsz Hei Cheung

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Background Knee adduction moment (KAM) is often used as a surrogate marker of knee contact force (KCF) during walking. Previous studies have reported potential benefits to reduce KAM in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) by foot progression angle adjustment. However, KAM is an external moment and it does not consider any muscle contribution to the joint loading, which should pose a greater influence in running than walking. Research question This study used a computational model to compare KAM and KCF between runners with and without knee OA during running. In addition, we evaluated the KAM and KCF when runners adjusted to an out-toe running style. Methods Kinematic, kinetic, and lower limb EMG data were collected from 9 runners with knee OA and 10 healthy counterparts. They were asked to run at their usual speed with standard shoes on an instrumented treadmill. Results We found no significant difference in the KAM during running between OA and the healthy group (p > 0.376). However, runners with knee OA exhibited a greater total KCF than the healthy counterparts (p < 0.041). We did not observe any reduction in KAM after foot progression angle adjustment (p > 0.346). Surprisingly, an increase in the longitudinal KCF and total KCF were found with adjustment of foot progression angle (p < 0.046). Significance Unlike the findings reported by the previous walking trials, our findings do not support the notion that foot progression angle adjustment would lead to a lower joint loading during running.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)34-39
Number of pages6
JournalGait and Posture
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2018


  • EMG
  • Joint loading
  • Musculoskeletal modelling
  • Out-toe gait
  • Running

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Rehabilitation

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