Effect of early ambulation after transfemoral cardiac catheterization in Hong kong: A single-blinded randomized controlled trial

Sek Ying Chair, Mingming Yu, Kai Chow Choi, Mi Ling Eliza Wong, Janet Wing Hung Sit, Wan Yim Ip

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review


Objective: The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of early ambulation after cardiac catheterization (CC) on patients' back pain, puncture site pain, vascular complications, urinary discomfort, general well-being perception and satisfaction level. Methods: This study was a randomized single-blinded controlled trial. Overall, 137 participants were randomly assigned to experimental (63 participants) or control (74 participants) group according to a computer generated random list. Early ambulation (ambulate at 4 hours post-CC) and routine post-procedure care of 12 to 24 hours were used in the experimental and control groups respectively. Independent t-test, Chi-square test, multiple logistic regression and generalized estimation equation model were applied to compare various outcomes between experimental and control groups. Results: Only one patient in the control group experienced puncture site bleeding after CC. Ambulation at 4 hours after CC significantly reduced patients' back pain 8 hours after they returned to the unit (OR=0.19, 95% CI: 0.08-0.45, p<0.001) and in the next morning (OR=0.36, 95% CI: 0.15-0.87, p=0.023), decrease urinary discomfort (OR=0.35, 95% CI: 0.14-0.90, p=0.03 for "very or unbearable urination discomfort" and OR=0.22, 95% CI: 0.06-0.74, p=0.015 for "much difficulty or unable to urinate at all"), and increase general well- being (p=0.005 for vitality subscale and p=0.014 for the total general well-being). However, it made no significant differences on puncture site pain as well as the satisfaction level of patients. Conclusion: The study enhanced health providers' understanding about the effects of early ambulation on patient outcomes. Nurses may provide more individualized and appropriate care to post-CC patients in a more competent and cost-effective way.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)222-230
Number of pages9
JournalAnadolu Kardiyoloji Dergisi
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2012
Externally publishedYes


  • Cardiac catheterization
  • Coronary artery disease
  • Early ambulation
  • Logistic regression analysis
  • Randomized controlled trial

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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