Effect of alignment changes on socket reaction moments during gait in transfemoral and knee-disarticulation prostheses: Case series

Toshiki Kobayashi, Michael S. Orendurff, David A. Boone

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

25 Citations (Scopus)


The alignment of a lower-limb prosthesis is critical to the successful prosthetic fitting and utilization by the wearer. Loads generated by the socket applied to the residual limb while walking are thought to be different in transfemoral and knee-disarticulation prostheses. The aim of this case series was to compare the socket reaction moments between transfemoral and knee-disarticulation prostheses and to investigate the effect of alignment changes on them. Two amputees, one with a transfemoral prosthesis and another with a knee-disarticulation prosthesis, participated in this study. A Smart Pyramid™ was used to measure socket reaction moments while walking under 9 selected alignment conditions; including nominally aligned, angle malalignments of 6° (flexion, extension, abduction and adduction) and translation malalignments of 15. mm (anterior, posterior, medial and lateral) of the socket relative to the foot. This study found that the pattern of the socket reaction moments was similar between transfemoral and knee-disarticulation prostheses. An extension moment in the sagittal plane and a varus moment in the coronal plane were dominant during stance under the nominally aligned condition. This study also demonstrated that alignment changes might have consistent effects on the socket reaction moments in transfemoral and knee-disarticulation prostheses. Extension and posterior translation of the socket resulted in increases in an extension moment, while abduction and lateral translation of the socket resulted in increases in a varus moment. The socket reaction moments may potentially serve as useful biomechanical parameters to evaluate alignment in transfemoral and knee-disarticulation prostheses.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2539-2545
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Biomechanics
Issue number14
Publication statusPublished - 27 Sep 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • Amputation
  • Ankle
  • Kinetics
  • Malalignment
  • Smart pyramid

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Rehabilitation

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