EEG-based vibrotactile evoked brain-computer interfaces system: A systematic review

Xiuyu Huang (Corresponding Author), Shuang Liang, Li Zengguang, Yuen Yi Cynthia Lai, Kup Sze Choi

Research output: Journal article publicationReview articleAcademic researchpeer-review


Recently, a novel electroencephalogram-based brain-computer interface (EVE-BCI) using the vibrotactile stimulus shows great potential for an alternative to other typical motor imagery and visual-based ones. (i) Objective: in this review, crucial aspects of EVE-BCI are extracted from the literature to summarize its key factors, investigate the synthetic evidence of feasibility, and generate recommendations for further studies. (ii) Method: five major databases were searched for relevant publications. Multiple key concepts of EVE-BCI, including data collection, stimulation paradigm, vibrotactile control, EEG signal processing, and reported performance, were derived from each eligible article. We then analyzed these concepts to reach our objective. (iii) Results: (a) seventy-nine studies are eligible for inclusion; (b) EEG data are mostly collected among healthy people with an embodiment of EEG cap in EVE-BCI development; (c) P300 and Steady-State Somatosensory Evoked Potential are the two most popular paradigms; (d) only locations of vibration are heavily explored by previous researchers, while other vibrating factors draw little interest. (e) temporal features of EEG signal are usually extracted and used as the input to linear predictive models for EVE-BCI setup; (f) subject-dependent and offline evaluations remain popular assessments of EVE-BCI performance; (g) accuracies of EVE-BCI are significantly higher than chance levels among different populations. (iv) Significance: we summarize trends and gaps in the current EVE-BCI by identifying influential factors. A comprehensive overview of EVE-BCI can be quickly gained by reading this review. We also provide recommendations for the EVE-BCI design and formulate a checklist for a clear presentation of the research work. They are useful references for researchers to develop a more sophisticated and practical EVE-BCI in future studies.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0269001
JournalPLoS ONE
Issue number6 June
Publication statusPublished - 3 Jun 2022


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