Ecological predictors of academic satisfaction in senior secondary school students in Hong Kong: The mediating role of academic confidence

Diya Dou, Tan Lei Shek, Ting Yin Wong

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review


Introduction: Although the secondary school curriculum reform has taken
place for more than 1 decade in Hong Kong, very few studies have examined
senior secondary school students’ academic satisfaction and its predictors at
the individual and school levels. The present study examined the influence of
academic stress, school support, positive youth development (PYD) attributes
on academic satisfaction via the mediation of academic confidence among
senior secondary school students using three-wave longitudinal data.
Methods: This study was derived from a 6-year longitudinal project examining
youth development among Hong Kong adolescents. Only three waves of data
collected from 2,023 students, including 959 boys (47.4%) and 1,040 girls
(51.4%), from grade 10 to 12 (i.e., Waves 4–6), were used in the present study
focusing on senior high school years. Students responded to a questionnaire
concerning different aspects of their development, including their perceptions
of school support, PYD attributes, academic stress, academic confidence,
and satisfaction with the NSS curriculum. We conducted structural equation
modeling (SEM) to test the hypothesized model.
Results: Results showed that while Wave 4 academic stress negatively
predicted academic satisfaction at Wave 6, Wave 4 positive youth development
attributes and school support had positive associations with Wave 6 academic
satisfaction; Wave 5 academic confidence also served as a mediator in
these relationships, except for the relationship between school support and
academic satisfaction.
Discussion: The theoretical, practical, and policy implications of the findings
are discussed. The present study generally supports previous findings on
the relationships between academic stress, school support, PYD attributes,
academic confidence, and academic satisfaction. The findings emphasize the
prominence of PYD attributes, school support, and confidence in enhancing
students’ academic satisfaction.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1041873
JournalFrontiers in Psychology
Publication statusPublished - 29 Nov 2022


  • NSS
  • hong kong
  • senior secondary students
  • academic satisfaction
  • positive youth development
  • academic confidence
  • academic stress
  • school support


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