Early local functional changes in the human diabetic retina: A global flash multifocal electroretinogram study

Jenny C.Y. Lung, Peter G. Swann, Ho Lung Henry Chan

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: To investigate early functional changes of local retinal defects in type II diabetic patients using the global flash multifocal electroretinogram (MOFO mfERG). Methods: Thirty-eight diabetic patients and 14 age-matched controls were recruited. Nine of the diabetics were free from diabetic retinopathy (DR), while the remainder had mild to moderate non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy. The MOFO mfERG was performed at high (98%) and low (46%) contrast levels. MfERG responses were grouped into 35 regions for comparison with DR classification at those locations. Z-scores of the regional mfERG responses were compared across different types of DR defects. Results: The mfERG waveform consisted of the direct component (DC) and the induced component (IC). Local reduction in DC and IC amplitudes were found in diabetic patients with and without DR. With increasing severity of retinopathy, there was a further deterioration in amplitude of both components. Under MOFO mfERG paradigm, amplitude was a useful screening parameter. Conclusion: The MOFO mfERG can help in detecting early functional anomalies before the appearance of visible signs, and may assist in monitoring further functional deterioration in diabetic patients.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1745-1754
Number of pages10
JournalGraefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2012


  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Diabetic retinopathy
  • Electroretinogram
  • Global flash multifocal electroretinogram
  • Retinal adaptation
  • Retinal functions

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology
  • Sensory Systems
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience


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