Dynamics and interactions between spot and forward freights in the dry bulk shipping market

Jingbo Yin, Meifeng Luo, Lixian Fan

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

48 Citations (Scopus)


Analyzing the interactions between spot and forward freight agreement (FFA) prices in the dry bulk shipping is important as they play a significant role for shipping companies to secure their profits and avoid potential risks in the volatile market. By applying the vector autoregression (VAR) and the vector error correction model (VECM), this paper identifies the long-run and mutual causal relationship between the spot and FFA prices on the BPI T/C and BCI C7 routes. Along with these cointegrating rates, exogenous factors such as the market demand and supply and some economic indices are also recognized as contributing variables for the dynamic movement of the spot and FFA prices. Importantly, the mean-reverting process is justified on both routes with different mechanisms. When the spot and FFA prices deviate from their equilibrium level in the short run, they will be adjusted to their long-run equilibrium more directly and clearly on the BPI T/C route than those on the BCI C7 route. It also indicates that this adjusting power has direction and size asymmetries on both routes. In addition, the impulse analysis indicates that the spot rate is more volatile than its corresponding FFA prices confronting innovations. The results of this study provide a reference to the participants in the dry bulk shipping market on the causes of fluctuation in spot and FFA prices and their interactions, which can be used to promote the risk management in the market.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)271-288
Number of pages18
JournalMaritime Policy and Management
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 17 Feb 2017


  • Dry bulk
  • FFA
  • impulse analysis
  • VAR
  • VECM model

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Transportation
  • Ocean Engineering
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law


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