A direct force measurement technique employing piezoelectric load cells is used to experimentally investigate a two-dimensional airfoil (NACA 0012) undergoing dynamic stall. The load cells are installed at each end of the airfoil and give the force response in two directions in the plane normal to the airfoil axis during oscillations. Experiments are carried out at a Reynolds number based on the airfoil chord equal to 7.7×104, and at four reduced frequencies, k=0.005, 0.01, 0.02, and 0.04. Phase-averaged lift of the airfoil undergoing dynamic stall is presented. It is observed that hysteresis loops of the lift occur both when the airfoil is pitched to exceed its static stall limit and when it is still within its static stall limit, and they grow in size with increasing k at the same pitching mean angle of attack and pitching amplitude. Both the lift and the drag induced by the pitching motion are further analyzed using the methods of higher order correlation analysis and continuous wavelet transforms to undercover their nonlinear and nonstationary features, in addition to classical FFT-based spectral analysis. The results are quantitatively illustrated by an energy partition analysis. It is found that the unsteady lift and drag show opposite trends when the airfoil undergoes transition from the pre-stall regime to the full-stall regime. The degree of nonlinearity of the lift increases, and the lift show a nonstationary feature in the light-stall regime, while the nonlinearity of the drag decreases, and the drag shows nonstationary feature in both the light-stall and the full-stall regimes. Furthermore, the lift and the drag have significant nonlinear interactions as shown by the correlation analysis in the light-stall regime.
|Number of pages||22|
|Journal||Journal of Fluids and Structures|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Jan 2008|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Mechanical Engineering