Dynamic Evaluation of Four CV Modes Multiplexing System using KramersKronig Reception and 4 4 Non-Singular MIMO

Xiong Wu, Jianbo Zhang, Qirui Fan, Zhongwei Tan, Jianping Li, Xingwen Yi, Zhaohui Li, Alan Pak Tao Lau, Chao Lu

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review


Cylindrical vector (CV) mode as the eigenmode of optical fibers is a strong candidate for high-capacity mode division multiplexing (MDM) systems. Based on the KramersKronig (K-K) reception, we experimentally demonstrate a 448-Gb/s MDM transmission system using four CV eigenmodes (|<i>l</i>|=2) over 3-km few-mode fiber (FMF), each mode carrying 28-GBaud 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (16-QAM) signals. In conventional MDM systems with <i><i>M</i></i> channels, blind <i>N</i><i>N</i> (<i>N</i><i>M</i>) multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technique is implemented to demultiplex and equalize <i>N</i> channels after transmission. However, without appropriately initializing finite impulse response (FIR) filter taps in MIMO, the singularity may show up and result in<i> N</i> MIMO outputs converged to <i>P</i> (<i>P</i><<i>N</i>) independent outputs with information missing. Here we employ the 44 multi-user constant modulus algorithm (MU-CMA) technique to avoid such singular problems in our MDM demonstration. To verify the reliability of MU-CMA, we test 7,408 signal sets (598 static sets and 13-hour 6,810 dynamic sets), and none of the singularities is observed. Specifically, 390 static sets out of 598 are added with an extra 3 dB mode-dependent loss (MDL), and the results of these sets prove the MDL-resistance of MU-CMA. Furthermore, the bit error rate (BER), MDL, and mode coupling for each mode of the proposed system are also investigated statically and dynamically. In the static case without extra MDL, all four CV mode channels can achieve 7% hard-decision forward error correction (FEC) threshold at BER of 3.810<sup>-3</sup>, under certain optical-to-signal noise ratio (OSNR). In dynamic cases, the averaged BER of four CV modes can also approach the FEC BER threshold. These experimental results verify the robustness of K-K reception and MU-CMA in CV-mode MDM systems. They also highlight the reliability and stability of CV-mode MDM systems, which show the enormous potential of the CV-mode MDM scheme employed in high-speed short-reach networks.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberArticle number 9645362
JournalJournal of Lightwave Technology
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2021


  • 4 4 multiuser constant modulus algorithm
  • Bit error rate
  • cylindrical vector mode
  • Kramers-Kronig reception
  • MIMO communication
  • mode-dependent loss
  • Mode-division multiplexing
  • Multiplexing
  • Optical fiber communication
  • Optical fiber polarization
  • Optical fibers
  • Photonics
  • singularity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

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