Rechargeable battery banks have been widely utilised in islanded microgrids as energy storage systems to complement the instant power imbalance in real-time. However, the cycle degradation becomes an unavoidable concern of the battery energy storage systems (BESSs) in achieving microgrid economic dispatch (ED). In this study, a novel degradation cost model based on an online auction algorithm is proposed for real-time management of BESS. To settle the intermittent distributed sources in real-time operation, a Wasserstein ambiguity set is adopted to characterise the uncertainties. Meanwhile, the authors newly reformulate the real-time microgrid ED as a two-stage distributionally robust optimisation (DRO) problem. To improve the tractability and scalability of the DRO problem, a model predictive control (MPC)-based data-driven approach is proposed, in which a novel affine policy namely extended event-wise affine adaption is properly employed. Through extensive case studies, the numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Control and Systems Engineering
- Energy Engineering and Power Technology
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering