Doping Process of 2D Materials Based on the Selective Migration of Dopants to the Interface of Liquid Metals

Mohammad B. Ghasemian, Ali Zavabeti, Maedehsadat Mousavi, Billy J. Murdoch, Andrew J. Christofferson, Nastaran Meftahi, Jianbo Tang, Jialuo Han, Rouhollah Jalili, Francois Marie Allioux, Mohannad Mayyas, Zibin Chen, Aaron Elbourne, Chris F. McConville, Salvy P. Russo, Simon Ringer, Kourosh Kalantar-Zadeh

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


The introduction of trace impurities within the doping processes of semiconductors is still a technological challenge for the electronics industries. By taking advantage of the selective enrichment of liquid metal interfaces, and harvesting the doped metal oxide semiconductor layers, the complexity of the process can be mitigated and a high degree of control over the outcomes can be achieved. Here, a mechanism of natural filtering for the preparation of doped 2D semiconducting sheets based on the different migration tendencies of metallic elements in the bulk competing for enriching the interfaces is proposed. As a model, liquid metal alloys with different weight ratios of Sn and Bi in the bulk are employed for harvesting Bi2O3-doped SnO nanosheets. In this model, Sn shows a much stronger tendency than Bi to occupy surface sites of the Bi–Sn alloys, even at the very high concentrations of Bi in the bulk. This provides the opportunity for creating SnO 2D sheets with tightly controlled Bi2O3 dopants. By way of example, it is demonstrated how such nanosheets could be made selective to both reducing and oxidizing environmental gases. The process demonstrated here offers significant opportunities for future synthesis and fabrication processes in the electronics industries.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2104793
JournalAdvanced Materials
Issue number43
Publication statusPublished - 28 Oct 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • atomically thin materials
  • bismuth
  • doping
  • liquid metals
  • tin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


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