Do attentional focus instructions affect real-time reinvestment during level-ground walking in older adults?

Chi To Mak (Corresponding Author), Wai Lung Wong

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


This study represents the first attempt in exploring whether attentional focus instructions could affect real-time reinvestment (conscious movement processing) in older adults during level-ground walking. Forty-five community-dwelling older adults were instructed to walk at a self-selected pace along a 6-m level-ground walkway under three randomized attentional focus conditions (i.e., Internal, External, and Control) for a total of fifteen trials (five trials for each condition). Electroencephalography (EEG) T3-Fz coherence was utilized as an objective measurement of real-time reinvestment during walking. The Chinese version of the Movement-Specific Reinvestment Scale (MSRS-C) was used to measure the trait reinvestment propensity. Results revealed that the EEG T3-Fz coherence did not differ among the three conditions. The EEG T3-Fz coherence at the Control condition was not correlated with the scores of the MSRS-C. Our findings suggest that the measurement of trait reinvestment propensity (MSRS-C) may not be sensitive enough to reflect real-time reinvestment. Moreover, attentional focus instructions do not affect real-time reinvestment during level-ground walking, possibly due to the low level of motor task difficulty in level-ground walking for healthy older adults. Future studies should investigate this influential issue with a more challenging walking task.
Original languageEnglish
JournalCognitive Processing
Publication statusPublished - 28 Jul 2021


  • Attention
  • Conscious movement processing
  • Electroencephalography
  • Gait
  • Older adults
  • Reinvestment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Cognitive Neuroscience
  • Artificial Intelligence


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