DNA binding and cytotoxicity of ruthenium(II) and rhenium(I) complexes of 2-amino-4-phenylamino-6-(2-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine

Dik Lung Ma, Chi Ming Che, Fung Ming Siu, Mengsu Yang, Kwok Yin Wong

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

128 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

[Ru(Bu2bpy)2(2-appt)](PF6)2[1·(PF6)2,tBu2bpy = 4,4′-di-tert-butyl-2,2′-bipyridine, 2-appt = 2-amino-4-phenylamino- 6-(2-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine] and [Re(CO)3(2-appt)Cl] (2) were prepared and characterized by X-ray crystal analysis. The binding of 1·(PF6)2and 2 to calf thymus DNA (ct DNA) led to increases in the DNA melting temperature (ΔTm= +12°C), modest hypochromism (29% and 5% of the absorption bands at λmax= 450 and 376 nm, respectively), and insignificant shifts in the absorption maxima. The binding constants of 1·(PF6)2and 2 with ct DNA, as determined by absorption titration, are (8.9 ± 0.5) × 104and (3.6 ± 0.1) × 104dm3mol-1, respectively. UV-vis absorption titration, DNA melting studies, and competition dialysis using synthetic oligonucleotides [poly(dA-dT)2and poly(dG-dC)2] revealed that 1·(PF6)2and 2 exhibit a binding preference for AT sequences. A modeling study on the interaction between 1 or 2 and B-DNA revealed that the minor groove is the most favored binding site and an extensive hydrogen-bonding network is formed. As determined by MTT assays, 1·(PF6)2and 2 exhibited moderate cytotoxicities toward several human cancer cell lines (KB-3-1, HepG2, and HeLa), as well as a multi-drug-resistant cancer cell line (KB-V-1). According to confocal microscopic and flow cytometric studies, 1·(PF6)2and 2 induced apoptosis (50-60%) in cancer cells with <5% necrosis detected.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)740-749
Number of pages10
JournalInorganic Chemistry
Volume46
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 5 Feb 2007

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry

Cite this