Distribution System Planning Considering Stochastic EV Penetration and V2G Behavior

Xiaolin Wang, Yongquan Nie, Ka Wai Eric Cheng

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

33 Citations (Scopus)


The increasing integration of electric vehicles (EVs) is adding higher future potentials for the smart grid because the residual energy stored in EV batteries can be discharged to support the grid when needed. However, the stochasticity of EV user behaviors pose challenges to the regulators of distribution systems. How the regulators decide upon a control strategy for the vehicle to grid and how EV users respond to the strategy will significantly influence the variation of load profiles in the planning horizon. In this paper, a comprehensive cost analysis is performed to obtain the optimal planning scheme, considering the variation in EV penetration, charging preference, and customer damage cost. The economics and stability of the planned distribution system are assessed with real-world travel records and cost statistics to quantitatively show the effectiveness of the optimization algorithm and the importance of user behavior concern.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8621612
Pages (from-to)149-158
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2020


  • customer damage cost
  • Distribution system planning
  • stochastic user behavior
  • vehicle to grid

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Automotive Engineering
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Computer Science Applications


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