Direct analysis by an arbitrarily-located-plastic-hinge element - Part 2: Spatial analysis

Si Wei Liu, Yao Peng Liu, Siu Lai Chan

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

35 Citations (Scopus)


This is the part two of the two companion papers, which extends the element formulations and the applications of the curved ALH (Arbitrarily Located Hinge) element to three-dimensional space for direct analysis of the steel frames considering large deflection and inelastic behaviors. A simplified approach assuming the space frame to deform with finite but small rotations is adopted for extending the planar element to the three-dimensional space. The updated Lagrangian description and the incremental secant stiffness method are introduced for considering large deflection in the analysis, which is proven to be accurate and efficient in the convergence in iterations for equilibrium. Since the internal degrees of freedom of the proposed element are condensed, a significant reduction on the size of the global stiffness matrix can be achieved with improvement in numerical efficiency. Finally, examples are given for the verification of the proposed numerical method.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)316-326
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Constructional Steel Research
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2014


  • Buckling
  • Initial imperfection
  • Plastic
  • Second-order
  • Space frame

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Building and Construction
  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Metals and Alloys


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