Digital measurement of torsional eye movement due to postural change and its effect on reading performance

Kwok Cheung Andrew Lam, E. Chung, J. Kho, S. Wong

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose. Posture induced torsional eye movements have rarely been investigated. The current study made use of digital imaging technology to measure the cycloduction resulting from postural change. The effect of cycloduction on reading performance was also investigated. Methods. Thirty subjects were recruited and pictures of the right eye were captured using a digital camera at three postures, i.e. sitting, 90 degrees tilted to the right and 90 degrees tilted to the left. With the identification of a conjunctival landmark, torsional eye movement was measured. The subjects were then required to read a custom designed near chart while in those three postures, the reading card being rotated 90 degrees clockwise or 90 degrees anti-clockwise, to match with the tilting of the head. The reproducibility of the torsional eye movement and reading performance measure was determined in 12 of those 30 subjects. Results. Incycloduction was induced when tilting to the right and excycloduction when tilting to the left. This method was found to be reproducible with the 95% confidence limits of 0.80° between visits. The mean incycloduction induced was 6.50° (SD 1.51°) and 6.41° (SD 1.46°) for excycloduction. No significant difference in amount was demonstrated (paired t-test: t = 0.624, P = 0.538). No significant difference was found in the reading scores at various postures (Repeated measures ANOVA: df = 2, F = 1.881, P = 0.162). Conclusions. The results presented here demonstrate that we have developed an objective and instantaneous method with good precision, which could be applied in other studies that require the measurement of torsional eye movements. The induced cycloduction did not affect the reading performance.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)763-766
Number of pages4
JournalCurrent Eye Research
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2000


  • Cycloduction
  • Posture
  • Reading
  • Torsion

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology
  • Sensory Systems
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience


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