Differences in time course and visual requirements of ocular responses to lenses and diffusers

Chea Su Kee, D. Marzani, J. Wallman

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

117 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose. Myopia can be induced in chickens by having them wear either negative lenses (lens-compensation myopia [LCM]) or diffusers (form-deprivation myopia [FDM]), whereas positive lenses cause lens-compensation hyperopia (LCH). These three conditions were compared with respect to (i) their early time course and (ii) the effect of two manipulations of the lighting. Methods. Longitudinal changes in ocular dimensions and refractive error were measured in chicks maintained under three different conditions: (i) wearing either -15 D lenses or diffusers in a normal light/dark cycle; (ii) wearing either +15 D lenses, - 15 D lenses, or diffusers with brief periods of stroboscopic lights at the beginning and end of the dark period, (iii) wearing either +6 D lenses, -6 D lenses, or diffusers with the nights interrupted by brief periods of white light. In addition, scleral and choroidal proteoglycan synthesis was measured in eyes that wore positive lenses, negative lenses, or diffusers for 3 hours followed by different periods of darkness. Results. (i) The time course of the changes in axial length over the first 72 hours was significantly faster in LCM than in FDM. Indeed, the diffusers did not begin to significantly affect the total length of the globe for 3 days, although the vitreous chamber had deepened after 9 hours, because the choroid thinned extremely rapidly (within 1 hour) with either diffusers or negative lenses. (ii) Scleral proteoglycan synthesis was higher in eyes with negative lenses than in those with diffusers at 11 hours, but the reverse was true at 27 hours. (iii) Brief periods of stroboscopic light attenuated FDM more than LCM. (iv) In contrast, interruption of the nights by brief periods of light attenuated LCM more than FDM. (v) Neither lighting manipulation affected LCH. (vi) Choroidal proteoglycan synthesis decreased similarly with 3 hours of wearing either diffusers or negative lenses. Conclusions. Although both negative lenses and diffusers cause similar increases in the rate of ocular elongation, the responses differ in time course and in the effect of manipulations of the daily lighting. The responses to positive lenses differ from both of these.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)575-583
Number of pages9
JournalInvestigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 22 Mar 2001
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology


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