Purpose: A deep neural network was developed for magnetic resonance fingerprinting (MRF) quantification. This study aimed at extending previous studies of deep learning MRF to in vivo applications, allowing sub-second computation time for large-scale data. Methods: We applied the deep learning methodology based on our previously published multi-layer perceptron. The number of layers was four, which was optimized to balance the model capacity and noise robustness. The training sets were obtained from MRF dictionaries with 9000 to 28,000 atoms, depending on the desired T1 and T2 ranges. The simulated MRF undersampling artifact based on the k-space acquisition scheme and noise were both added to the training data to reduce the error in estimates. Results: The neural network achieved high fidelity (R2 _ 0.98) as compared to the T1 and T2 values of the ISMRM standardized phantom. In brain MRF experiment, the model trained with simulated artifacts and noise showed less error compared to that without. The in vivo application of our neural network for liver and prostate were also demonstrated. For an MRF slice with 256 _ 256 image resolution, the computation time of our neural network was 0.12 s, compared with the _ 28 s-pre-slice for the conventional dictionary matching method. Conclusion: Our neural network achieved fast computation speed for MRF quantification. The model trained with simulated artifacts and noise showed less error and achieved optimal performance for phantom experiment and in vivo normal brain and liver, and prostate cancer patient.
- Deep learning
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biomedical Engineering
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging