Development of an integrated energy benchmark for a multi-family housing complex using district heating

Jaewook Jeong, Taehoon Hong, Changyoon Ji, Jimin Kim, Minhyun Lee, Kwangbok Jeong

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

30 Citations (Scopus)


The reliable benchmarks are required to evaluate building energy efficiency fairly. This study aims to develop the energy benchmarks and relevant process for a multi-family housing complex (MFHC), which is responsible for huge CO2 emissions in South Korea. A database, including the information on building attributes and energy consumption of 503 MFHCs, was established. The database was classified into three groups based on average enclosed area per household (AEA) through data mining techniques. The benchmarks of site energy use intensity (EUI), source EUI, and CO2 emission intensity (CEI) were developed from Groups 1, 2, and 3. Representatively, the developed benchmarks of CEI for Groups 1, 2, and 3 were 28.17, 24.16, and 20.96 kg-CO2/m2 y, respectively. A comparative analysis using the operational rating identified that the developed benchmarks could solve the irrationality of the original benchmarks from overall database. In the case of the original benchmarks, 93% of small-AEA-groups and 16% of large-AEA-groups received lower grades. In the case of the developed benchmark, the upper and lower grades in Groups 1–3 were both adjusted to 50%. The proposed process for developing energy benchmark is applicable to evaluate the energy efficiency of other buildings, in other regions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1048-1061
Number of pages14
JournalApplied Energy
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2016


  • CO emission intensity
  • Decision tree
  • Energy benchmarking
  • Energy use intensity
  • Multi-family housing complex
  • Operational rating system

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Building and Construction
  • General Energy
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law


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