Development and Validation of the Caregiver Empowerment Scale: A Resource for Working With Family Caregivers of Persons With Traumatic Brain Injury

Charles Edmund Degeneffe, Fong Chan, Laura Dunlap, Wai Kwong Man, Connie Sung

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

27 Citations (Scopus)


To use multitrait analysis to determine the measurement structure of the Caregiver Empowerment Scale (CES). Participants: An American sample of 87 adult primary family caregivers of persons with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Results: A four-factor structure was identified including factor 1 (Advocacy Self-Efficacy), factor 2 (Community Self-Efficacy), factor 3 (Caregiver Self-Efficacy), and factor 4 (Personal Self-Efficacy). Conclusions: The CES provides clinicians and researchers a means to assess self-perceived coping abilities of family caregivers of persons with TBI.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)243-250
Number of pages8
JournalRehabilitation Psychology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2011


  • Caregiving
  • Empowerment
  • Family
  • Social support
  • Traumatic brain injury

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Rehabilitation
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

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