Development and validation of an academic reading instrument for graduate students of applied linguistics

Hassan Nejadghanbar (Corresponding Author), Mahmood Reza Atai, Catherine Elizabeth Snow

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review


Despite the importance of academic reading in higher education, the current literature lacks a valid instrument comprising different components of academic reading at a graduate level. This article reports on the development of an academic reading instrument for (Iranian) MA students of applied linguistics. To this end, based on a thorough review of the relevant literature and interviews with experts, a preliminary theoretical framework was proposed and an instrument with 50 items was developed. The instrument was validated through conducting exploratory factor analysis (EFA) with 345 participants and a further confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) with 207 participants. The results of the EFA and CFA led to the emergence of an 8-component instrument with 37 items. The components include reading strategies, English language proficiency, content knowledge, statistical literacy, genre awareness, information literacy, interaction with teaches and peers (interactive reading), and critical reading. The implications are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)17-38
Number of pages22
JournalAustralian Journal of Language and Literacy
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2024


  • Academic literacy
  • Applied linguistics
  • Graduate students
  • Instrument validation
  • Reading literacy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Language and Linguistics
  • Education
  • Linguistics and Language


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