Development and validation of a new Chinese reading chart for children

Josephine P.Y. Cheung, Dilys S.K. Liu, Catherine C.C. Lam, Ming Yan Cheong

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: This study aimed to develop and validate a new Chinese reading chart for children. The characteristics of reading profiles among Hong Kong children were also investigated. Methods: A new reading chart was developed using the design principles of the MNREAD chart. Children (N = 169) aged seven to 11 years with normal vision and no developmental or reading difficulties were recruited from four local Hong Kong primary schools located in four different districts. Reading performance was measured using three versions of the new Chinese reading chart for children as well as six short passages. Repeated reading measures were conducted for 79 participants 4-8 weeks later. A linear mixed-model analysis was performed for the reading measures to identify the contribution of each source of variation (individual participant, among-charts within-session and between-sessions, and error) to the total variance. Results: Three reading parameters were derived from the Chinese reading chart for children - maximum reading speed (MRS), critical print size (CPS) and reading acuity (RA). Results from the linear mixed-model and Bland and Altman analyses revealed that all three versions of the chart were reproducible, with little variability among-charts and between-sessions (p < 0.001). The coefficient of repeatability for the MRS, CPS and RA was 0.08 logWPM, 0.16 logMAR and 0.14 logMAR respectively. The strong correlation between reading speed measured by the chart and ordinary children's reading passages confirmed the usefulness of the chart for assessing children's reading performance (Rc = 0.67, 95% CI of 0.60-0.73). Conclusions: We developed and validated a new Chinese reading chart for children for quantifying reading performance in Chinese children with normal reading ability. This standardised clinical test can be reliably used to measure the MRS, CPS and RA in Chinese-speaking children. Further research is needed to evaluate the validity of this chart for assessing reading performance in Chinese children with reading difficulties, dyslexia or low vision. The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)514-521
Number of pages8
JournalOphthalmic and Physiological Optics
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2015


  • Children reading performance
  • Chinese reading
  • Reading chart
  • Reading speed

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology
  • Optometry
  • Sensory Systems


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