Development and validation of a fine-motor assessment tool for use with young children in a Chinese population

Man Hong Andrew Siu, Yuen Yi Cynthia Lai, Amy S.M. Chiu, Calvin C.K. Yip

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives: Most of the fine-motor assessment tools used in Hong Kong have been designed in Western countries, so there is a need to develop a standardized assessment which is relevant to the culture and daily living tasks of the local (that is, Chinese) population. This study aimed to (1) develop a fine-motor assessment tool (the Hong Kong Preschool Fine-Motor Developmental Assessment [HK-PFMDA]) for use with young children in a Chinese population and (2) examine the HK-PFMDA's psychometric properties. Method: The HK-PFMDA was developed by a group of occupational therapists specializing in the area of developmental disabilities in Hong Kong. A panel of 21 experts reviewed the content validity of the instrument. Rasch item analysis was used to examine the model fit of items against the rating scale model, and to explore the dimensionality of the test. Intra- and interrater reliability, convergent validity, and criterion-related validity were examined. The participants included 783 children without disabilities, 45 with autistic spectrum disorder, and 35 with developmental delay. Results: The Rasch analysis suggested that the 87-item HK-PFMDA had a unidimensional structure, as the items explained most (91.6%) of the variance. The HK-PFMDA demonstrated excellent intra- (ICC = .99) and interrater reliability (ICC = .99), and internal consistency (α ranging from .83 to .92). In terms of validity, the HK-PFMDA had significant positive correlations with both age and the convergent measures of the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales (PDMS-2). Conclusion: A set of normative data for local children aged from birth to 6 years was established. The HK-PFMDA has shown excellent psychometric properties and is suitable for clinical application by occupational therapists in the assessment of fine-motor skills development of young children in Chinese populations.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)107-114
Number of pages8
JournalResearch in Developmental Disabilities
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2011


  • Assessment
  • Chinese
  • Development
  • Fine-motor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Clinical Psychology

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