Development and performance evaluation of a passive direct ammonia fuel cell

Yun Liu, Zhefei Pan, Oladapo Christopher Esan, Xiaoyu Huo, Xingyi Shi, Liang An

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


In this work, a new passive ammonia fuel cell prototype is designed and tested. The developed ammonia fuel cell features a passive supply of ammonia to the anode, eliminating the need for a complex fuel delivery system, while the cathode is designed as an open cathode to directly use oxygen from the ambient air as oxidant. To demonstrate the working principle of the passive ammonia fuel cell, its general performance is first investigated and results show that the developed passive ammonia fuel cell can provide a peak power density of 31.9 mW cm−2 and an open-circuit voltage of 0.63 V. To gain insights into the physical and chemical processes involved in the cell and as well enhance the understanding of the mass/charge transport mechanism within the cell, the developed passive ammonia fuel cell prototype was tested under different operating conditions, such as various operating temperature and reactant concentrations. In addition, the structural parameters of the membrane electrode assembly, such as the thickness of the membrane, catalyst loading, and hydrophobicity of the diffusion layer are investigated and analyzed to examine their influence on the mass transport behavior and performance of the passive ammonia fuel cell.

Original languageEnglish
Article number233057
JournalJournal of Power Sources
Publication statusPublished - 30 Jun 2023


  • Ammonia
  • Anion exchange membrane
  • Fuel cells
  • Hydrogen carrier
  • Liquid fuel
  • Open cathode

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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