Development and initial validity of the in-hand manipulation assessment

Gabrielle Klymenko, Karen P.Y. Liu, Michelle Bissett, Nai Kuen Fong, Nandana Welage, Rebecca S.M. Wong

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Background/aim: A review of the literature related to in-hand manipulation (IHM) revealed that there is no assessment which specifically measures this construct in the adult population. This study reports the face and content validity of an IHM assessment for adults with impaired hand function based on expert opinion. Methods: The definition of IHM skills, assessment tasks and scoring methods identified from literature was discussed in a focus group (n = 4) to establish face validity. An expert panel (n = 16) reviewed the content validity of the proposed assessment; evaluating the representativeness and relevance of encompassing the IHM skills in the proposed assessment tasks, the clarity and importance to daily life of the task and the clarity and applicability to clinical environment of the scoring method. The content validity was calculated using the content validity index for both the individual task and all tasks together (I-CVI and S-CVI). Feedback was incorporated to create the assessment. Results: The focus group members agreed to include 10 assessment tasks that covered all IHM skills. In the expert panel review, all tasks received an I-CVI above 0.78 and S-CVI above 0.80 in representativeness and relevance ratings, representing good content validity. With the comments from the expert panel, tasks were modified to improve the clarity and importance to daily life. A four-point Likert scale was identified for assessing both the completion of the assessment tasks and the quality of IHM skills within the task performance. Conclusion: Face and content validity were established in this new IHM assessment. Further studies to examine psychometric properties and use within clinical practice are recommended.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)135-145
Number of pages11
JournalAustralian Occupational Therapy Journal
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2018


  • fine motor skills
  • functional assessment
  • in-hand manipulation
  • instrument development

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Occupational Therapy

Cite this