Developing standard window to floor ratio (Wfr) system for green residential buildings in subtropics

Suwen Jiang, Chen Wang, Jeffrey Boon Hui Yap, Heng Li, Lincoln C. Wood, Hong Song Hu, Bin Xu

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review


The window system is generally regarded as the most vulnerable building system for the indoor energy performance of green buildings. Window systems are given sig-nificant attention by architects and engineers, especially in areas with long summer and high solar radiation such as the subtropics. This study aims to develop a standard window-to-floor ratio (WFR) system for green residential buildings in the subtrop-ics. Using Autodesk Revit as the interface, a real high-rise residential building was digitalized and imported into Ecotect for energy consumption analysis. Comparative analyses were conducted to determine the optimal WFR for building energy effi-ciency. Results demonstrated 0.23 as the optimal WFR in Xiamen, one of the typical subtropical cities in Asia. Furthermore, accompanied by a four-sidefins sunshade device and a double glass window (DGW) with clear “glass+air gap+reflective” glass, the building energy consumption was further reduced by 34.47% compared to the initial model, which successfully met the optimization target of 30%, set according to the green building standard. The results of this study are helpful to architects and building engineers when designing or retrofitting green buildings as we provide specific support for design features for energy performance.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)109-134
Number of pages26
JournalJournal of Green Building
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2021


  • BIM
  • Building energy efficiency
  • Ecotect
  • Window-to-floor ratio

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Architecture
  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Building and Construction
  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Nature and Landscape Conservation
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law

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