Determining the domestic drainage loads for High-Rise buildings

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)


The building drainage loads must be reasonably estimated to design an effective and healthy drainage system. Nowadays, data in various drainage design guides have not been examined for various architectural designs and user behavioral patterns in high-rise residential buildings in Hong Kong. A recent survey on the usage patterns and discharge flow rates from domestic appliances of 597 selected apartments in 14 high-rise residential buildings was performed in Hong Kong. The probable loads of the drainage systems in high-rise residential buildings are investigated and design figures are proposed for the ‘fixture-unit’ approach. The probable wastewater discharge flow rate in a group of domestic appliances, for a vertical drainage stack and the corresponding stack size for high-rise residential buildings are examined, and compared with the design guides used for local buildings. This study provides an updated database of drainage demands in high-rise residential buildings in Hong Kong which is very useful for evaluating the various drainage system designs of the buildings in developed cities having a high population density.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)347-354
Number of pages8
JournalArchitectural Science Review
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2004


  • Domestic drainage
  • Drainage system
  • High-rise
  • Load estimation
  • Residential building

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Architecture


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