Determining the attributes that influence students’ online learning satisfaction during COVID-19 pandemic

Elizabeth Agyeiwaah, Frank Badu Baiden, Emmanuel Gamor, Fu-Chieh Hsu

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

40 Citations (Scopus)


The inevitable disruptions caused by COVID-19 in the hospitality and tourism education sector have made online learning a necessity rather than an option. This study employs the user experience questionnaire (UEQ) to examine students' online learning experiences specifically in the context of COVID-19. Data collection involved a Qualtrics online survey with a convenience sample of 216 tourism and hospitality students in Macau. Overall, results point to a generally positive appraisal of online attributes, but satisfaction is marginal. Initial principal component factor analysis generated three orthogonal factors of online learning attributes: “Perspicuity and dependability”; “Stimulation and attractiveness”; and “Usability and innovation”. Further regression analysis reveals that “Stimulation and attractiveness” is the strongest predictor of the students’ satisfaction regarding online learning during the COVID-19 disruptions. This novel finding points to the need for hospitality and tourism education institutions to develop an attractive and motivating visual environment for online course delivery since a stimulating online learning atmosphere is crucial in the context of the pedagogical disruptions caused by COVID-19. Nonetheless, these findings are specific to Chinese students and reflect their learning satisfaction which may differ in other contexts.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100364
JournalJournal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Education
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2022


  • Attributes
  • COVID-19 disruptions
  • Macau
  • Online learning
  • Satisfaction
  • Tourism and hospitality students

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management


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