Deterioration Mapping of RC Bridge Elements Based on Automated Analysis of GPR Images

Mohammed Abdul Rahman, Tarek Zayed, Ashutosh Bagchi

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR) is a popular non-destructive technique for evaluating RC bridge elements as it can identify major subsurface defects within a short span of time. The data interpretation of the GPR profiles based on existing amplitude-based approaches is not completely reliable when compared to the actual condition of concrete with destructive measures. An alternative image-based analysis considers GPR as an imaging tool wherein an experienced analyst marks attenuated areas and generates deterioration maps with greater accuracy. However, this approach is prone to human errors and is highly subjective. The proposed model aims to improve it through automated detection of hyperbolas in GPR profiles and classification based on mathematical modeling. Firstly, GPR profiles are pre-processed, and hyperbolic reflections were detected in them based on a trained classifier using the Viola–Jones Algorithm. The false positives are eliminated, and missing regions are identified automatically across the top/bottom layer of reinforcement based on user-interactive regional comparison and statistical analysis. Subsequently, entropy, a textural factor, is evaluated to differentiate the detected regions closely equivalent to the human visual system. These detected regions are finally clustered based on entropy values using the K-means algorithm and a deterioration map is generated which is robust, reliable, and corresponds to the in situ state of concrete. A case study of a parking lot demonstrated good correspondence of deterioration maps generated by the developed model when compared with both amplitude-and image-based analysis. These maps can facilitate structural inspectors to locally identify deteriorated zones within structural elements that require immediate attention for repair and rehabilitation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1131
JournalRemote Sensing
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2022


  • Automated analysis
  • Bridge inspection
  • Deterioration map
  • Entropy
  • Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR)
  • K-means clustering
  • Non-destructive evaluation (NDE)
  • Viola–Jones Algorithm

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Earth and Planetary Sciences


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