Design standard for inclusion: Tactile ground surface indicators in China

Research output: Journal article publicationReview articleAcademic researchpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: This paper seeks to: identify the importance of a design standard for tactile ground surface indicators (TGSIs); discuss the problem of the existing standard of TGSIs in China; and advocate an all-round approach that the consideration of a design standard of TGSIs should be on policy, implementation and management perspectives. Design/methodology/approach: TGSIs in China were taken as a case study, while those in other countries/cities were used as supplementary reference cases. Intensive field observations on the quality of TGSIs in various public places were carried out in the Chinese mainland between 2005 and 2009. The public places included transportation terminals, shopping centres and universities. The research activities included intensive field observations and direct interviews. Different types of TGSIs were reviewed by using product analysis methods. Findings: For inclusion, a standard for TGSIs is important. It is an effective tool in design quality assurance. There are three perspectives to ensuring the quality of a design standard: policy, implementation, and management. Research limitations/implications: Further case studies are expected to be conducted in other cities in order to generate a more comprehensive understanding related to the topic. Continuous studies are also necessary since the living environment is changing all the time. The general public's participation to establish a good design standard for TGSIs is important. Practical implications: The findings provide reference and direction for an all-round approach consideration in a design standard for TGSIs; and for social inclusion. Social implications: The findings illustrate how inclusion can be achieved by setting up a design standard of TGSIs in China (as a case study) by considering an all-round perspective. Originality/value: The work and study are new in China. The findings provide insights for China and other countries, and individual cities, to review the needs of visually impaired persons.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)314-327
Number of pages14
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2013


  • Buildings
  • China
  • Design
  • Design standard
  • Disadvantaged groups
  • Facilities
  • Inclusion
  • Public design
  • Tactile ground surface indicators
  • Visually impaired persons

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Human Factors and Ergonomics
  • Architecture
  • Building and Construction


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