Design optimization and optimal control of grid-connected and standalone nearly/net zero energy buildings

Yuehong Lu, Shengwei Wang, Kui Shan

Research output: Journal article publicationReview articleAcademic researchpeer-review

191 Citations (Scopus)


Nearly/net zero energy buildings (nZEBs) have attracted increasing attention particularly when high and complex performance is required in terms of energy-saving, indoor thermal comfort, environmental friendliness and grid-friendliness. However, there is no exact approach at present for the design and control of buildings to achieve the nearly/net zero energy target. This is mainly due to the complex interplay of energy production/consumption/storage systems as well as the automatically and manually controlled systems/elements in the highly integrated buildings. This paper therefore presents a comprehensive review on the issues related to the design and control of these buildings, i.e. the effects of climate/site on design, design optimization methods, uncertainty and sensitivity analysis for robust design and system reliability, efficient and optimal control of high efficient generation systems and energy storage systems for alleviating/shifting the peak load, model predictive control for fast responses to smart grid, and adoption of advanced smart technologies. An outline of the progress of nZEBs is presented by summarizing the internationally known nZEBs identified including 30 case studies on the design strategies applied and the actual building performance. This review could also support the future development of methods that address the design and control of buildings with a holistic view.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)463-477
Number of pages15
JournalApplied Energy
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2015


  • Demand response
  • Design optimization
  • Literature review
  • Scheduling and control
  • Zero energy building

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Building and Construction
  • General Energy
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law


Dive into the research topics of 'Design optimization and optimal control of grid-connected and standalone nearly/net zero energy buildings'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this