Design and modelling of thermostatically controlled loads as frequency controlled reserve

Zhao Xu, J. Østergaard, M. Togeby, C. Marcus-Møller

Research output: Chapter in book / Conference proceedingConference article published in proceeding or bookAcademic researchpeer-review

42 Citations (Scopus)


Using demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR) is beneficial to power systems in many aspects. To study the impacts of this technology on power system operation, control logics and simulation models of relevant loads should be carefully developed. Two advanced control logics for using demand as reserve have been presented in this paper. Electricity loads that are applicable for the technique in practical power systems are analysed. Moreover, a simulation model of thermostatically controlled loads, which can provide frequency activated reserve by controlling their set points according to system frequency, is developed. The developed simulation model is able to represent a variety of aggregated thermostatically controlled loads, such as heaters or refrigerators. Uncertainties including customer behaviours and ambient temperature variation are also modelled. Preliminary simulation results are presented and analysed, which demonstrates the great potentials of the DFR technology.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2007 IEEE Power Engineering Society General Meeting, PES
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2007
Externally publishedYes
Event2007 IEEE Power Engineering Society General Meeting, PES - Tampa, FL, United States
Duration: 24 Jun 200728 Jun 2007


Conference2007 IEEE Power Engineering Society General Meeting, PES
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CityTampa, FL


  • Demand as frequency controlled reserve
  • Load modelling
  • Thermostatically controlled loads

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Energy(all)

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