Design and manufacture of three-dimensional auxetic warp-knitted spacer fabrics based on re-entrant and rotating geometries

Yuping Chang, Yanping Liu, Hong Hu (Corresponding Author)

    Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

    5 Citations (Scopus)


    Warp knitting technology is a fabric-forming technologies that is very suitable to fabricate three-dimensional (3D) auxetic fabrics due to its high efficiency and powerful pattern designing possibilities. In this study, two typical auxetic geometries, namely the re-entrant hexagonal network and rotating square solids, were selected as the design prototypes for the design and manufacture of 3D warp-knitted spacer fabrics. While two 3D warp-knitted spacer fabric structures with representative units of different sizes designed based on the re-entrant hexagonal geometry were manufactured by using a RD7 double needle bar Raschel machine with seven yarn guide bars, two 3D jacquard warp-knitted spacer fabrics with different base fabric structures designed based on the rotating squares geometry were fabricated by using a RDPJ4/2 double needle bar jacquard machine with two ground yarn guide bars and four jacquard guide bars. The Poisson’s ratios of these 3D warp-knitted fabrics in the course direction and wale direction were evaluated respectively through constant-rate tensile tests. The results revealed that the re-entrant hexagonal fabric structure with double chain stitches has auxetic behavior across a wide range of tensile strains along the course direction, while the rotating square fabric structure with elastic chain stitches as the base is auxetic within a narrow range of tensile strains along the wale direction. The study provides an alternative method to directly produce auxetic warp-knitted spacer fabrics through a single knitting process instead of using an additional post-compression and heat-setting process.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number92(3-4)
    Pages (from-to)467-478
    Number of pages12
    JournalTextile Research Journal
    Issue number3-4
    Publication statusPublished - Feb 2022


    • Auxetic fabric
    • re-entrant geometry
    • rotating squares
    • spacer fabric
    • warp knitting

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Chemical Engineering (miscellaneous)
    • Polymers and Plastics


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