The accelerated development of miniaturized and customized electronics has stimulated the demand for high-energy microbatteries (MBs) as on-chip power sources for autonomous state operations. However, commercial MBs with thin-film configurations exhibit insufficient energy and power density due to their limited active materials and sluggish ion diffusion kinetics. In order to simultaneously enhance electrochemical performance and maintain low-cost production, efforts have been devoted to constructing three-dimensional battery architectures. This review summarizes the state-of-the-art progress in designing and fabricating microelectrodes for microbattery assembly, including the top-down etching and bottom-up printing techniques, with a particular focus on elucidating the correlations between electrode structures, battery performance, and cost-effectiveness. More importantly, advancements in post-lithium batteries based on sodium, zinc and aluminum are also surveyed to offer alternative options with potentially higher energy densities and/or lower battery manufacturing costs. The applications of advanced MBs in on-chip microsystems and wearable electronics are also highlighted. Finally, conclusions and perspectives for the future development of MBs are proposed.
- lithium-ion batteries
- post-lithium batteries
- etching and printing techniques