Design and comparison of Vernier permanent magnet machines

Siu Lau Ho, Shuangxia Niu, Weinong Fu

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

115 Citations (Scopus)


Vernier permanent magnet (VPM) machines can be utilized for direct drive applications by virtue of their high torque density and high efficiency. The purpose of this paper is to develop a general design guideline for split-slot low-speed VPM machines, generalize the operation principle, and illustrate the relationship among the numbers of the stator slots, coil poles, permanent magnet (PM) pole pairs, thereby laying a solid foundation for the design of various kinds of VPM machines. Depending on the PM locations, three newly designed VPM machines are reported in this paper and they are referred to as 1) rotor-PM Vernier machine, 2) stator-tooth-PM Vernier machine, and 3) stator-yoke-PM Vernier machine. The back-electromotive force (back-EMF) waveforms, static torque, and air-gap field distribution are predicted using time-stepping finite element method (TS-FEM). The performances of the proposed VPM machines are compared and reported.
Original languageEnglish
Article number6027625
Pages (from-to)3280-3283
Number of pages4
JournalIEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2011


  • Direct drive
  • electric motor
  • finite element method (FEM)
  • permanent magnet (PM)
  • time stepping
  • Vernier

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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