Design and assessment of amblyopia, strabismus, and myopia treatment and vision training using virtual reality

Hoi Sze Chan (Corresponding Author), Yuk Ming Tang (Corresponding Author), Chi Wai Do, Horace Ho Yin Wong, Lily YL Chan, Suet To

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Virtual reality is a relatively new intervention that has the potential to be used in the treatment of eye and vision problems. This article reviews the use of virtual reality-related interventions in amblyopia, strabismus, and myopia research.

Methods: Sources covered in the review included 48 peer-reviewed research published between January 2000 and January 2023 from five electronic databases (ACM Digital Library, IEEE Xplore, PubMed, ScienceDirect and Web of Science). To prevent any missing relevant articles, the keywords, and terms used in the search included “VR”, “virtual reality”, “amblyopia”, “strabismus,” and “myopia”. Quality assessment and data extraction were performed independently by two authors to form a narrative synthesis to summarize findings from the included research.

Results: Total number of 48 references were reviewed. There were 31 studies published on amblyopia, 18 on strabismus, and 6 on myopia, with 7 studies overlapping amblyopia and strabismus. In terms of technology, smartphone-based virtual reality headset viewers were utilized more often in amblyopia research, but commercial standalone virtual reality headsets were used more frequently in myopia and strabismus-related research. The software and virtual environment were mostly developed based on vision therapy and dichoptic training paradigms.

Conclusion: It has been suggested that virtual reality technology offers a potentially effective tool for amblyopia, strabismus, and myopia studies. Nonetheless, a variety of factors, especially the virtual environment and systems employed in the data presented, must be explored before determining whether virtual reality can be effectively applied in clinical settings. This review is significant as the technology in virtual reality software and application design features have been investigated and considered for future reference.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-42
Number of pages42
JournalDigital Health
Publication statusPublished - 6 Jun 2023


  • Virtual reality
  • amblyopia
  • myopia
  • strabismus
  • systematic review
  • vision training

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health Information Management
  • Health Policy
  • Health Informatics
  • Computer Science Applications


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