Design 3D Printing Cementitious Materials Via Fuller Thompson Theory and Marson-Percy Model

Yiwei Weng, Mingyang Li, Ming Jen Tan, Shunzhi Qian

Research output: Chapter in book / Conference proceedingChapter in an edited book (as author)Academic researchpeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Cementitious materials for 3D printing have special requirements for rheological properties, which are significantly affected by many factors, including sand gradation and packing fraction. Fuller Thompson theory and Marson-Percy model are classic approaches for sand gradation and packing fraction optimization, respectively. This paper attempts to apply Fuller Thompson theory and Marson-Percy model in designing cementitious materials for 3D cementitious materials printing (3DCMP). Various gradation methods adopted in this study were Fuller Thompson gradation (mixture A), uniform-gradations (mixture B and C), gap-gradations (mixture D and E). Besides these mixtures with special gradation approaches, one mixture using natural river sand (mixture F) was prepared as well. Rheological properties were characterized by static/dynamic yield stress and plastic viscosity in Bingham plastic model. Buildability was examined by printing a column with 10cm inner diameter via a gantry printer. Rheological test results indicate that mixture A designed by continuous gradation possesses the highest static/dynamic yield stress and lowest plastic viscosity. During printing test for buildability, mixture A can easily reach up to 40 layers without notable deformation, while all other mixtures deformed noticeably and fell down before the 35th layer. Finally, a large-scale printing was carried out with mixture A and a structure with the height of 80cm was printed successfully without notable deformation. Density, compressive strength and flexural strength of printed filaments were also characterized. Mechanical performance test results illustrate mixture A has the highest density and appropriate compressive strength, and a relatively high flexural strength at different curing ages. These results indicate that Fuller Thompson theory and Marson-Percy model can serve as a reasonable guide for material rheology design for 3DCMP.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication3D Concrete Printing Technology
Subtitle of host publicationConstruction and Building Applications
Number of pages26
ISBN (Electronic)9780128154816
ISBN (Print)9780128154823
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2019


  • 3D cementitious materials printing
  • Bingham plastic model
  • Fuller Thompson theory
  • Marson-Percy model

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Computer Science


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