Depth discrimination in scanned heterodyne microscope systems

Michael Geoffrey Somekh

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


The optical transfer function of several scanning microscope systems is derived, using a physically intuitive approach. The technique allows a wide range of systems to be modelled with only minor modifications to the basic formulation. The results are then used to determine the response of various scanning microscopes for objects both in and out of the focal plane. The possibility of performing extended‐focus phase imaging in heterodyne microscopes by scanning the sample along the optical axis is also examined. This mode of operation should allow measurements of minute topographical and phase variations on tilted or warped samples with the same lateral resolution as would be obtained when the sample is in focus throughout the entire scan. 1992 Blackwell Science Ltd
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)131-151
Number of pages21
JournalJournal of Microscopy
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 1992
Externally publishedYes


  • extended focus
  • heterodyne
  • interferometry
  • optical transfer function
  • Scanning optical microscope

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Histology


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