Depression and Associated Factors in Chinese Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease Without Dialysis: A Cross-Sectional Study

Difei Duan, Lin Yang, Min Zhang, Xiaoli Song, Wen Ren

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been a globally public health problem over the past decades. The maintenance of physical and mental health is of importance for patients nowadays. Notably, depression is prevalent and associated with various adverse events in CKD patients without dialysis. Prior studies have reported that pain, negative illness perception, pain, and low self-esteem are potential risk factors of depression, while few studies have comprehensively investigated the mechanisms among these factors and depression among this population. 

Purpose: This study aims to investigate the prevalence of depression and further explore the factors associated with depression among CKD patients without dialysis in China. 

Design and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in patients with diagnosed CKD to investigate the prevalence of depression was by the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). The data on pain interference, illness perception, and self-esteem were also collected via self-administered questionnaires. A structural equation model (SEM) was used to examine the factors associated with depression. 

Main Findings: From June to October 2019, we successfully interviewed 334 CKD patients at the outpatient clinics. Their mean age was 45.6 years (ranging from 19 to 74 years), and 48.5% were male. Most respondents were at early CKD stages (77.5% stage 1–3) and the prevalence of depression was 22.2%. We found a moderate association between illness perception and depression, which was modified by self-esteem. Similar but weaker association was found between pain interference and depression. 

Conclusion and Recommendations: Negative illness perception, low self-esteem and severe pain interference were associated with depression among Chinese CKD patients without dialysis. Future studies are warranted to investigate the underlying mechanism and formulate the intervention strategies for this high-risk population.

Original languageEnglish
Article number605651
JournalFrontiers in Public Health
Publication statusPublished - 28 May 2021


  • chronic kidney disease
  • depression
  • illness perception
  • pain perception
  • self-esteem

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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